In case of macular degeneration the retinal metabolism is damaged in macule, i.e. the region of the sharpest vision in the retina.

The risk factors of macular degeneration include older age, smoking, genetic predisposition, high blood pressure, and overweight. Macular degeneration usually starts after 50 years of age, but some forms of macular degeneration can also occur at younger age. Macular degeneration can also be hereditary.