Medicinal therapy – the doctor can prescribe eye drops that decrease intraocular pressure.
When intraocular pressure cannot be sufficiently lowered with eye drops, the next therapeutic option is usually laser therapy. The aim of laser therapy is to improve the outflow of the aqueous humour by widening the canals located in the corner or anterior chamber of the eye with an nD:YAG laser in the SLT method. In case of closed-angle glaucoma an additional possibility for the aqueous humour is created via irdiectomy with an nD:YAG laser.
The aim of the surgical treatment of glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure. Operations for glaucoma are usually performed under local anaesthesia, but general anaesthesia may also be used, if necessary. The most anti-glaucoma surgery is so-called fistulising operation. During this operation an orifice is opened in the sclera in the corner of the anterior chamber of the eye, so that the aqueous humour produced by the ciliary body can flow below the mucosal layer. From there the aqueous humour is absorbed in blood vessels and intraocular pressure decreases.
In about 80% of cases surgery reduces intraocular pressure for a prolonged period of time. Quite frequently intraocular pressure increases again after some time from surgery, and in such a case it is necessary to use anti-glaucoma medicines again. Recurrent surgery is also one treatment option in such a case. As mentioned above, successful glaucoma surgery does not improve the visual acuity of the eye, but its aim is to stop the further progression of the disease.